Hydrothermal kyanite, cobalt minerals and fluids in the Central African Copperbelt
The Central African Copperbelt (CACB) is the world’s primary source of copper and cobalt, producing about 70% of the metal which is critical for the production of batteries needed to help decarbonize our societies. This talk will delve into the minerals of the Central African Copperbelt, introducing a new occurrence of 'hydrothermal kyanite', traditionally considered a high-pressure, high-temperature mineral. Intimate association of kyanite-bearing veins and Cu-sulphide mineralization at low pressure and temperature indicates that unusual thermodynamic conditions facilitated the mobility of traditionally immobile elements such as Al, Ti and Ge, as well as mobilizing technology metals such as Cu, Co and Ni. This talk will also introduce the results of hydrothermal, cold seal pressure vessel experiments conducted in conjunction with Dionysis Foustoukos as part of Anna's Fulbright scholarship at Carnegie. These experiments measured the thermodynamic properties of the mineral Carrolite (Co2CuS4), the main cobalt-bearing phase found in the CACB.